The History of Armenia
Armenia is considered one of the cradles of civilization - the country with rich and centuries-long history. On the territory of Armenia you can come across numerous ancient and medieval historical and cultural monuments.
Before the beginning of the 20th century /1915 Armenian Genocide/ the term “Armenia’ referred to the whole Armenian Highland where originated the Armenian nation with its history. The Armenian Highland together with Asia Minor and Iranian Plateau is considered the ancestral home of Indo-European nations.
During the excavations of the Hittite capital, the information on ancient Hayasa state / BC 2nd millennium/ has been found, while the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions give information on Urartian people and powerful Kingdom of Urartu, which covered the the entire Armenian Highland. The Fortress of Erebuni /BC 782/ was built during the era of Urartu Kingdom /Ararat Kingdom/ from which originates Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.
Armenia is the first state to which officially adopted Christianity as its state religion in AD 301-303. In 405 Mesrop Mashtots created the Armenian alphabet which marked the beginning of the formation of the Armenian writing and literature, thus, protecting the Armenian people from merging with other nations.
In the 11th century the Principality of Cilicia was established with joint efforts of several Armenian principalities on the North-Eastern Coast of Mediterranean Sea. In the 12th century it was declared as an independent Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia which existed till the 14th century.
In the Middle Ages Armenia became the platform for Persian and Byzantine clashes, while in the modern period, starting from the 15th century, it was the arena for Persian and Turkish clashes. In 1828, as a result of Russian-Turkish war, the Eastern part of Armenia-Eastern Armenia joint to Russia, while the Western Armenia remained under the Turkish dictatorship.
In May, 1918, on the territory of Eastern Armenia, the first Republic of Armenia was established, which existed till November, 1920 when the power was handed over to the Bolsheviks. Armenia became a Soviet Republic of Armenia - the part of USSR.
In 1991, as a result of referendum, Armenia was proclaimed an independent republic, which paves the way for the establishment and development of the Republic of Armenia.
The present Republic of Armenia is located in the Northern part of Western Asia - on the North-West of the Armenian Highland. On the North it borders with Georgia, on the East with Azerbaijan, on the South-East with Republic of Artsakh, on the South with Iran and on the West with Turkey. The territory is 29,800 square kilometers; the capital is Yerevan with the population of 1.5 million.
The highest mountain of Armenia is Aragats (4090 m): There are more than 100 lakes in Armenia; Lake Sevan is the largest lake in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude lakes in Eurasia, which is located 1900m above sea level. More than 215 rivers flow through this country.
Armenia has a rich and unique flora and fauna. There are around 3200 plant species of which 106 are endemic. From the fauna one can meet rare species of birds and animals, wild goat, mouflon, Syrian Brown Bear, etc.
Armenia is the land of Armenians, the nation which has conquered the right to live under this sky by its centuries-long struggles and endurance.